achievements in medicine
For the last five years, medicine has made huge steps forward. We can distinguish 10 major medical advancements that help to save human lives and to bring medicine to a new level.
So, let’s start from first achievements in medicine. Biologists from the Scripps Research Institute, California discovered a new effective vaccine against all types of influenza. Super-antibody CR9114 is able to fight the B- and A-type virus, i.e. it becomes a remedial vaccine. Its functional principle is as follows. An antibody attaches to a surface protein of influenza virus and protects the protein from changes necessary for a virus to get fused with a cell. The discovery will help to fight the virus effectively.
Receiving the stem cells
In 2007, Japanese geneticists led by Professor Xin Yamanaka form Kyoto University managed to receive stem cells from human skin cells. In the process of genetic modification, the stem cells were received. It is known that stem cells can be converted into any of 220 types of cells that make up the human body. Previously, it was possible to receive stem cells necessary to grow organs for transplantation only from human embryos.
In 2009 scientists from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology gave hope for blind people to regain sight, at least partially. Their invention is an implant with a microchip, which by means of surgical operations is attached to a human eyeball. The invention will help blind people to orient in space better, to perform simple household tasks and to become productive members of society. An implant will produce power from human body warmth, and its service life is estimated as long as 10 years.
World’s first vaccine against Parkinson’s disease
Until 2012, this disease had been considered as incurable and the only way for the patient was to take medications mitigating the disease symptoms. But, last year private Austrian company AFFiRiS AG investigated PD01A vaccine, which is designed to cure the disease. The drug causes body to destroy toxic alpha-synuclein protein, which accumulates in the brain and causes the death of nervous system
A US scientific team from the University of Washington in cooperation with their Finnish colleagues from the Aalto University developed contact lenses that can project an image directly in front of the eyes of a person wearing them. The technology was successfully tested, but the lenses need to be further improved. By using the sensors a patient will be able to receive various information on the temperature, pulse, blood sugar level and so on in the real time mode.
In 2010, in Vall d’Hebron Hospital, Barcelona, Spanish surgeons led by Juan Barrett performed a full-face transplant for the first time. The operation lasted for about 24 hours, more than 30 doctors were engaged in it. Previously, surgeons made only partial facial tissue transplant, and the first one took place in 2005. The like operations will be carried out further. In February 2013 Carmen Tarleton from the USA also had a new face transplanted.
Berkeley Bionics company from California presented a medical exoskeleton eLEGS. It aims to help people with paralyzed legs: they are not just able to stand on their feet, but also to move. The device uses built-in sensors to control human gestures, and based on the data received it gives commands to electronic feet. The device weighs 20 kg, it allows to produce the speed up to 3.22 km/h and can operate without recharging for six hours. This is great achievement in medicine.
Genes of longevity
A scientific team led by Dr. Guanchzhou Zhai from London King’s College found eight genetic combinations that are responsible for the production of hormones that determine the aging process. The hormone dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate is produced in adrenal glands. Its maximum level is reached in humans aged 20-30 and then it decreases. Thus, low levels of this hormone can promote the development of diseases occurring in elderly people. By learning to raise its level the humanity can significantly extend the duration of life.
Scientists from the Medical University of South Carolina conducted a study whose purpose was to show that a magnetic field can mitigate the condition of patients suffering depression. However, critics of this method argue that patients could recover not only because of the magnetic fields, but rather due to self-hypnosis.
Cure against alcohol abuse
Pharmacists from the Danish company Lundbeck invented an effective drug against alcohol abuse. The Selincro drug was approved by the European Medicines Agency and in 2013 became available in European pharmacies. The functional principle of drug is simple. Pills reduce feeling of euphoria after patient drinks alcohol thus reducing the very desire to drink. It is interesting that this drug was effective in the treatment of opioid abuse.
We must know that achievements in medicine play very important role in our life.